NCERT Solutions Class 10 for Social Science Economics Chapter 2 Sectors of the Indian Economy

NCERT Solutions Class 10 for Social Science Economics Chapter 2 Sectors of the Indian Economy : In this post, we will share with you all the detailed NCERT Solutions of Class 10 Social Science Economics Chapter 2 Sectors of the Indian Economy. This will contain both in-text and back-exercise questions for Science and Social Science, and all exercise questions for Mathematics. For all school and board level examinations, doing all the NCERT Questions is a must.

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Class 10 Social Science Economics Chapter 2 -Sectors of the Indian Economy


Exercise Questions ( Page 35-36-37)

Question 1:
Fill in the blanks using the correct option given in the bracket:

(i) Employment in the service sector _________ increased to the same extent as production. (has / has not)
(ii) Workers in the _________ sector do not produce goods. (tertiary / agricultural)
(iii) Most of the workers in the _________ sector enjoy job security. (organised / unorganised)
(iv) A _________ proportion of labourers in India are working in the unorganised sector. (large / small)
(v) Cotton is a _________ product and cloth is a _________ product. (natural / manufactured)
(vi) The activities in primary, secondary and tertiary sectors are _________. (independent / interdependent)

Answer 1:
(i) Employment in the service sector has not increased to the same extent as production.
(ii) Workers in the tertiary sector do not produce goods.
(iii) Most of the workers in the organised sector enjoy job security.
(iv) A large proportion of labourers in India are working in the unorganised sector.
(v) Cotton is a natural product and cloth is a manufactured product.
(vi) The activities in primary, secondary and tertiary sectors are interdependent.

Question 2:
Choose the most appropriate answer.
(a) The sectors are classified into public and private sector on the basis of:
(i) employment conditions
(ii) the nature of economic activity
(iii) ownership of enterprises
(iv) number of workers employed in the enterprise

(b) Production of a commodity, mostly through the natural process, is an activity in __ sector.
(i) primary
(ii) secondary
(iii) tertiary
(iv) information technology

(c) GDP is the total value of _ produced during a particular year.
(i) all goods and services
(ii) all final goods and services
(iii) all intermediate goods and services
(iv) all intermediate and final goods and services

(d) In terms of GDP the share of tertiary sector in 2003 is _
(i) between 20 per cent to 30 per cent
(ii) between 30 per cent to 40 per cent
(iii) between 50 per cent to 60 per cent
(iv) 70 per cent

Answer 2:
(a) (iii)
(b) (i)
(c) (ii)
(d) (iii)

Question 3:
Match the following:

Answer 3:

Question 4:
Find the odd one out and say why.

Answer 4:

  • Tourist guide, dhobi, tailor, potter.
  • Teacher, doctor, vegetable vendor, lawyer.
  • Postman, cobbler, soldier, police constable.
  • MTNL, Indian Railways, Air India, Sahara Airlines, All India Radio.
  • Potter, because only the potter relates to the secondary sector.
  • Vegetable vendor, since only this directly helps in the production of goods.
  • Cobbler because the only cobbler falls in the private sector.
  • Sahara Airlines, as this is only a private sector company in the group.

Question 6:
Do you think the classification of economic activities into primary, secondary and tertiary is useful? Explain how.

Answer 6:
The classification of economic activities into primary, secondary and tertiary is useful, as it helps to classify the different occupations that are taken up by the people in the country and how much each sector contributes to the growth of the country. It is also important because it helps in asserting that which sector contributes the most in the GDP and which sector has the scope to employ more people and increase the National Income.

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Question 7:
For each of the sectors that we came across in this chapter why should one focus on employment and GDP? Could there be other issues which should be examined? Discuss.

Answer 7:
(1) For each of the sectors we focus on employment and GDP due to the reasons mentioned below :

  • To know the number of people employed in that sector. For example in 2000, the share of the primary sector in employment was more than secondary and tertiary sectors.
  • To know the share of each sector in the GDP. For example in 2000, the share of the tertiary sector was more than that of the agriculture sector and secondary sector in the GDP.
  • By focusing on GDP and employment we can draw conclusions regarding the generation of new employment opportunities in various sectors and take necessary steps accordingly.
  • We come to know employment conditions for workers such as in the unorganized sector and take necessary steps to improve their condition. So that the workers are not exploited.

(2) Focus should be laid on other issues such as conditions of work, profit motive, efficiency, public welfare, environmentally friendly.

  • Conditions of work should be in the favour of workers.
  • The employment should be regular and the employer should follow various laws such as Factories Act, Minimum Wages Act etc.
  • The production must be for the welfare of the people who should not be exploited by raising prices or creating a scarcity of goods in the market. Thus, such issues must be examined while discussing the role of different sectors in the economy of the country.

Question 8:
Make a long list of all kinds of work that you find adults around you doing for a living. In what way can you classify them? Explain your choice.

Answer 8:
The activities performed by human beings for a living are classified into three sectors: primary, secondary and tertiary. When we see people around us, we can classify their employment sector in either of the three classifications. Activities like cleaning, agriculture, selling vegetables are examples of the primary sector. Manufacturing of goods is an example of the secondary sector. Teaching, mining, banking, transportation are all examples of the tertiary sector.

Question 9:
How is the tertiary sector different from other sectors? Illustrate with a few examples.

Answer 9:
The are activities that help in the development of the primary and secondary sectors are called tertiary activities. These activities are different from the primary and secondary sector activities. These activities, by themselves, do not produce a good but they are an aid or support for the production process. For example, goods that are produced in the primary or secondary sector would need to be transported by trucks or trains and then sold in wholesale and retail shops. These transportation facilities and shopkeepers come under the tertiary sector. They do not produce goods but play a very important role in selling and bringing those goods to the market.

Question 10:
What do you understand by disguised unemployment? Explain with an example each from the urban and rural areas.

Answer 10:
The situation of underemployment, where people are apparently working but all of them are made to work less than their potential is called disguised unemployment. In this case, the person considers himself employed but is actually not working.

In rural areas, where agriculture is the main source of income, this kind of unemployment can be seen often. If a piece of land requires only three people to work on it and instead five people are working on it, then the two extra people are said to be in a situation of disguised unemployment.

In urban areas, disguised unemployment is seen when painters, plumbers, electricians are unable to find work on a daily basis and work way less than their potential.

Question 11:
Distinguish between open unemployment and disguised unemployment.

Answer 11:
Open Unemployment – When a country’s labour force do not get opportunities fro adequate employment, this situation is called open unemployment. This type of unemployment is generally found in the industrial sector of our country. This is also found among the landless agricultural labourers in rural areas.

Disguised Unemployment – This is a kind of unemployment in which there are people who are visibly employed but actually they don’t have full employment. In such a situation more people are engaged in a work than required. This type of unemployment is generally found in unorganized sector where either work is not constantly available or too many people are employed for the same work that does not require so many hands.

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Question 12:
Tertiary sector is not playing any significant role in the development of Indian economy. Do you agree/ Give reasons in support of your answer?

Answer 12:
“The tertiary sector is not playing any significant role in the development of Indian economy” is partially correct due to reasons as mentioned below :

The share of tertiary sector in employment has not increased in proportion to its increase in production. In 2000, the production in service sector rose by 11 times, whereas employment has risen less than three times. Therefore, still more than half of the workers in the country are working in the primary sector.

New services such as based on information technology have become important, but not all the services of the service sector are growing well. At one end are highly skilled and educated workers but on the other end, there are a very large number of workers engaged in services such as small shopkeepers, repair Arsons, transport persons. These persons barely manage to earn a living and yet they perform these services because no alternative opportunities for work are available to them. Such persons can not play any important role in the development of the Indian economy. It is this part of service sector that is not growing in importance.

Question 13:
Service sector in India employs two different kinds of people. Who are these?

Answer 13:
The service sector in India employs the following two different kinds of people. They are:
(a) The people involved in the services that may directly help in the production of goods. For example, people involved in the transportation, storage, communication, finance etc.
(b) The people involved in such services that may not directly help in the production of goods e.g. teachers, doctors, barbers, cobblers lawyers etc. They may be termed as ancillary workers means those who give services to the primary service providers.

Question 14:
Workers are exploited in the unorganized sector. Do you agree with this view.? Give reasons in support of your answer.

Answer 14:
The unorganised sector is characterised by small and scattered units, which are largely outside the control of the government. There are rules and regulations but these are not followed. Jobs here are low paid and not regular. Hence, it is correct to say that workers are exploited in the unorganised sector because more work is taken from them in comparison to what they are paid. They have no provisions or extra pay for overtime and no medical benefits. The biggest problem in working in this sector is that there is no job security.

Question 15:
How are the activities in the economy classified on the basis of employment conditions?

Answer 15:
On the basis of the employment conditions, the economy can be classified into two sectors:

1.Organised Sector: Enterprises registered under the Government of India, who have an employee-friendly environment and are provided with various facilities including high wages.
2.Unorganised Sector: Small and scattered units which are temporary. The employees in this sector are paid less.

Question 16:
Compare the employment conditions prevailing in the organised and unorganised sectors.

Answer 16:
In the organised sector, the employees are given higher wages, medical facilities, a healthy working environment and their jobs are permanent. They are not liable to look for a new source of income each day.

In the unorganised sector, the wages are low, the employees are exploited, no extra income for extra time is given, no medical facilities are provided and the work environment is unhealthy.

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Question 17:
Explain the objective of implementing the NREGA 2005.

Answer 17:
1.The objective of implementing the NREGA 2005 i.e., National Rural Employment Guarantee Act 2005 is to implement the right to work.
2.The Act has to be implemented in 200 districts.
3.Under this Act, all those who are able to, and are in need of work have been guaranteed 100 days of employment in a year by the government.
4.If the government fails in its duty to provide employment, it will give unemployment allowance to the people.
5.The types of work that would in future help to increase the production from land will be given preference under this Act.

Question 18:
Using examples from your area compare and contrast that activities and functions of private and public sectors.

Answer 18:
In the private sector, the assets and industries are owned by individuals and in the public sectors industries and enterprises are owned by the Government. Private sector works to earn profits and the public sector works to provide facilities to the public and to earn profits. The common examples of the public sector that we can see around us are Government Banks, Post Offices, municipal hospital and Indian railways. The common examples of the private sector that we can see around us are IT companies, malls and multiplexes, etc.

Question 19:
Discuss and fill the following table giving one example each from your area.

Answer 19:
Students must answer this question based on their own observations.

Question 20:
Give a few examples of public sector activities and explain why the government has taken them up.

Answer 20:
The examples are:
Railways: The government has taken up it for the following reasons –

  1. Only the government can invest large sums of money on the public project with long gestation period.
  2. To ensure and provide transportation at cheap rate.
    NTPC: The government has taken up it to provide electricity at a lower rate than the actual cost of production. The aim is to protect and encourage the private sector especially small scale industries.
    AIIMS: To provide quality health services at reasonably cheap rate was the main purpose of the government to start this.

Question 21:
Explain how Public sector contributes to the economic development of a nation.

Answer 21:
The public sector is the sector that comes under the government of India. The reason for the government to take responsibility for this sector is because the basic necessities of people including water, electricity, irrigation, all fall under this category. If these departments are left unattended, it will result in the downfall of the economy of a country because the growth of the country would stop. The economic development of a country depends upon the development of the people and if people are deprived of the basic necessities, the country’s economic development would be affected. Government encourages small and large industries to flourish and provides employment under this section.

Question 22:
The workers in the unorganised sector need protection on the following issues : wages, safety and health. Explain with examples.

Answer 22:
The unorganised sector is characterised by small and scattered units, which are largely outside the control of the government. There are rules and regulations but these are not followed. The workers in the unorganised sector need protection:

Wages: The income of workers in the unorganised sector is not fixed and they are barely able to meet the needs to lead a decent livelihood. Hence proper and fixed wages should be given to these workers so that they can grow and contribute to the growth of the country. For example – a painter only gets paid the wages for the days he works and on the other days, he is jobless and is able to earn nothing.

Safety: No safety is provided to the workers working in the unorganised sector. There is no job security and anyone can be fired and removed from their work as per the requirement of the labourers. For example – A labour working in the construction of a building is left with no work once the construction is complete and has no guarantee of getting work again.

Health: Health is a very important factor for the growth and development of the country. The unorganised sector is given no medical security and if any accident occurs while they are working, the employer is not responsible for their health. For example – there is no sick leave for labourers working on daily wages.

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Question 23:
A study in Ahmedabad found that out of 15,00,000 workers in the city, 11,00,000 worked in the unorganised sector. The total income of the city in this year (1997-1998) was Rs 60,000 million. Out of this Rs 32,000 million was generated in the organised sector. Present this data as a table. What kind of ways should be thought of for generating more employment in the city?

Answer 23:
Ways to generate more employment in the city of Ahmedabad have to be provided by the government, especially in the unorganised sector. As the table shows, the organised sector’s earnings are much higher than that of the unorganised sector even though the latter employs almost 80% of the city workers. More companies need to be brought under the roof of the organised sector so that workers from the unorganised sector are attracted to jobs there, with higher and more secure wages. For this, the government must provide loans and aid to companies transferring from unorganised to organised sectors.

Question 24:
The following table gives the GDP in Rupees (Crores) by the three sectors:

(i) Calculate the share of the three sectors in GDP for 2000 and 2013
(ii) Show the data as a bar diagram similar to Graph 2 in the chapter.
(iii) What conclusions can we draw from the bar graph?

Answer 24:
(i) In 2000,
primary sector = 22.22%, secondary sector = 20.73%, tertiary sector = 57.04%
And In 2013,
primary sector = 13.94%, secondary sector = 18.70%, tertiary sector = 67.36%

(iii) We can draw the conclusion that the share of the tertiary sector in the GDP has increased by 10%, while that of the primary sector has almost halved. The secondary sector has grown by about 2% in the last 13 years.


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