# NCERT Solutions Class 10 for Social Science Economics Chapter 1 Development

NCERT Solutions Class 10 for Social Science Economics Chapter 1 Development : In this post, we will share with you all the detailed NCERT Solutions of Class 10 Social Science Economics Chapter 1 Development. This will contain both in-text and back-exercise questions for Science and Social Science, and all exercise questions for Mathematics. For all school and board level examinations, doing all the NCERT Questions is a must.

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Hence, it’s very important to understand NCERT Questions and Answers.

# Class 10 Social Science Economics Chapter 1 – Development

## Exercise Questions (Page 16-17)

Question 1:
Development of a country can generally be determined by
a.its per capita income
b.its average literacy level
c.health status of its people
d.all the above

d. all the above

Question 2:
Which of the following neighbouring countries has better performance in terms of human development than India?
b.Sri Lanka
c.Nepal
d.Pakistan

b. Sri Lanka

Question 3:
Assume there are four families in a country. The average per capita income of these families is Rs 5000. If the income of three families is Rs 4000, Rs 7000 and Rs 3000 respectively, what is the income of the fourth family?
(i) Rs 7500
(ii) Rs 3000
(iii) Rs 2000
(iv) Rs 6000

(iv).Rs 6000

(4000+7000+3000+x) ÷ 4 = 5000
14000+x = 5000 × 4
x = 20000-14000
x = 6000

Question 4:
What is the main criterion used by the World Bank in classifying different countries? What are the limitations of this criterion, if any?

World Bank uses the per capita income to classify different countries. The per capita income is calculated by dividing the total income of the country by the population of the country. For the year 2017, the countries with per capita income of US \$12,056 per annum were declared rich countries and the countries with per capita income of US \$ 955 or less are called low-income countries.

The limitations of the criterion are:

1.Other important factors, including literacy rate, infant mortality rate, healthcare, are ignored while classifying the countries.
2.Information about the unequal distribution of income is not mentioned by The World Bank
3.The economy of the country cannot determine the development of the country.

Question 5:
In what respects is the criterion used by the UNDP for measuring development different from the one used by the World Bank?

The criterion used by UNDP is different from the one used by the World Bank because UNDP compares countries based on the educational level of the people, their health status and per capita income. This is in contrast with the method used by the World Bank because the World Bank only calculates the per capita income for measuring development.

Question 6:
Why do we use averages? Are there any limitations to their use? Illustrate with your own examples related to the development.

(1) We use averages for comparison between two countries, two persons or any two or more things.
(2) There are the following limitations to the use of averages :

i).Averages do not tell us about similarities or differences between two countries or persons or things.
ii).By averages only one aspect income, size etc. in case of country, marks or participation in sports activities etc. in case of student, can be compared. All aspects or achievements are not compared.
iii).As only one aspect is compared, it does not give true picture of different countries, persons or things. For example, students differ in height, health, talents and interests. The healthiest student may not be the most intelligent or topper in studies. Similar is the case in respect of countries or states. A country may be ahead than the other country in one field but may lag behind in the other field. So averages do not give the correct picture.

Question 7:
Kerala, with lower per capita income, has a better human development ranking than Punjab. Hence, per capita income is not a useful criterion at all and should not be used to compare states. Do you agree? Discuss.

Kerala, with lower per capita income, has a better human development ranking than Haryana. Hence, per capita income is not a useful criterion at all and should not be used to compare states. This is true because the literacy rate, infant mortality rate, healthcare facilities, etc. are better in Kerala in comparison to Haryana. The per capita income is only calculated by calculating the average income of the state, irrespective of any other factor.

Question 8:
Find out the present sources of energy that are used by the people in India. What could be the other possibilities fifty years from now?

The present sources of energy that are used by the people of India are electricity, coal, crude oil, cowdung and solar energy. Other possibilities fifty years from now, could include ethanol, bio-diesel, nuclear energy and better utilization of wind energy, especially with the imminent danger of oil resources running out.

Question 9:
Why is the issue of sustainability is important for development?

Sustainable development means that development should meet the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their needs. However, since the second half of the twentieth century, a number of scientists have been warning that the present type and levels of development are not sustainable. The issue of sustainable development has emerged from rapid industrialization of the world in the past century. It is felt that economic growth and industrialization have led to the reckless exploitation of natural resources. On the other hand, the stock of natural resources are limited. So, the growth of all countries in the future is likely to be endangered if the limited resources are completely exhausted.

Under these circumstances, the issue of sustainability has become important for development. A number of resources are being overused. For example, groundwater is under serious threat of overuse in many parts of the country i.e., Punjab, Haryana and western U.P. The water level has declined over 4 meters. As a result of it if we go on overusing there will be a water crisis in future. Similarly, if non-renewable resources are used recklessly these will also be exhausted.

Question 10:
“The Earth has enough resources to meet the needs of all but not enough to satisfy the greed of even one person”. How is this statement relevant to the discussion of development? Discuss.

Development not just depends on the economic factors of a country, but is also dependent on resources that are available for the people of a country to use. The statement: “The Earth has enough resources to meet the needs of all but not enough to satisfy the greed of even one person” is completely relevant in terms of the development of a country because natural resources are non-renewable resources. It is the responsibility of the people to use them only to meet their needs and not to satisfy their greed. If natural resources are not used wisely now, the future generations may not be able to use them for their needs, which will result in the downfall of development of a country.

Question 11:
List a few examples of environmental degradation that you may have observed around you.

1.Air pollution has increased due to the emission of smoke from factories and vehicles.
2.There is an increase in water pollution due to shops and small factories in residential areas.
3.There is noise pollution due to the use of loudspeakers at night and blowing of horns unnecessarily on the roads by different vehicles.
4.People throw garbage wherever they want. Perhaps there is no provision for dustbins in the streets or roadsides.
5.Sometimes people urinate in the open on the roadside due to a lack of public conveniences.

Question 12:
For each of the items given in Table 1.6, find out which country is at the top and which is at the bottom.

As per table 1.6, Sri Lanka tops in all the four categories. It has the highest Gross National Income, Life expectancy at birth, mean years of schooling of people aged 25 and above and HDI rank in the world. Nepal has the lowest Gross National Income among the given countries. Pakistan has the least Life Expectancy at birth and ranks the lowest HDI rank in the world among the given countries. Mean years of schooling of people aged 25 and above is the lowest for Myanmar and Nepal.

Question 13:
The following table shows the proportion of adults (aged 15-49 years) whose BMI is below normal (BMI <18.5 kg/m2) in India. It is based on a survey of various states for the year 2015-16. Look at the table and answer the following questions.

a.Compare the nutritional level of people in Kerala and Madhya Pradesh.
b.Can you guess why around one-fifth of people in the country are undernourished even though it is argued that there is enough food in the country? Describe in your own words.

a.The nutritional level of people in Kerala is higher than the nutritional level of people in Madhya Pradesh.

b.One-fifth of the population in the country are undernourished even though it is argued that there is enough food in the country because of the following reasons:

1.The disparity in the distribution of food grains by Public Distribution System (PDS).
2.Nutritious food cannot be afforded by the poor population in the country.
3.Educational backwardness of people results in unemployment because of which people cannot afford the basic necessity of food.
4.There is no proper distribution of ration at the fixed price stores.