NCERT Solutions Class 10 for Social Science History Chapter 5 The Age of Industrialisation

NCERT Solutions Class 10 for Social Science History Chapter 5 The Age of Industrialisation : In this post, we will share with you all the detailed NCERT Solutions of Class 10 Social Science History Chapter 5 The Age of Industrialisation Chemical Reactions and Equations. This will contain both in-text and back-exercise questions for Science and Social Science, and all exercise questions for Mathematics. For all school and board level examinations, doing all the NCERT Questions is a must.

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Class 10 Social Science History Chapter 5 The Age of Industrialisation


Exercise Questions (Page 126):

Question 1:
Explain the following:

(a)Women workers in Britain attacked the Spinning Jenny
(b)In the seventeenth century merchants from towns in Europe began employing peasants and artisans within the villages
(c)The port of Surat declined by the end of the eighteenth century
(d)The East India Company appointed ‘gomasthas’ to supervise weavers in India

Answer 1:
a.James Hargreaves designed the Spinning Jenny in 1764. This machine speeded up the spinning process and reduced the demand for labour. By the use of this machine, a single worker could turn a number of spindles, and spin several threads at a time. Due to this, many weavers would lose employment. The fearful prospect of unemployment drew women workers, who depended on hand-spinning, to attack the new machines.

b.World trade expanded at a very fast rate during the 17th and 18th centuries. The acquisition of colonies was also responsible for the increase in demand. The producers in the towns failed to produce the required quantity of cloth. The producers could not expand the production in the towns, because urban crafts and trade guilds were powerful. These were the associations of producers that restricted the entry of new people into the trade. The rulers granted different guilds the monopoly right to produce and the trade-in specific products.

c.The European companies were gaining power by securing a variety of concessions from the local courts. It was very difficult for the Indian merchants and traders to face the competition as most of the European countries had huge resources. Some of the European companies got the monopoly rights to trade.
All this resulted in the decline of Surat Port by the end of the eighteenth century. In the last years of the seventeenth century, the gross value of trade that passed through Surat had been 16 million. By the 1740s, it had slumped to 3 million. With the passage of time, Surat and Hooghly decayed, while Bombay (Mumbai) and Calcutta (Kolkata) grew.
a.The company tried to eliminate the existing traders and brokers connect with the cloth trade, and establish more direct control over the weavers. It appointed a paid servant called Gomastha to supervise weavers, collect supplies, and examine the quality of cloth.

Question 2:
Write True or False against each statement:
(a) At the end of the 19th century, 80 per cent of the total workforce in Europe was employed in the technologically advanced industrial sector.
(b) The international market for textiles was dominated by India till the eighteenth century.
(c) The American Civil War resulted in the reduction of cotton exports from India.
(d) The introduction of the fly shuttle enabled the handloom workers to improve their productivity.

Answer 2:
(a) False
(b) True
(c) False
(d) True

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Question 3:
Explain what is meant by proto industrialisation.

Answer 3:
Even before factories began to appear on the landscape of England and Europe, there was a large scale industrial production for an international market. This was not based on factories. Many historians now refer to this phase of industrialisation as proto-industrialisation or the precursor to industrialisation. During this period, most of the goods were hand manufactured by trained crafts-persons for the international market.


Question 4:
Why did some industrialists in nineteenth-century Europe prefer hand labour over machines?

Answer 4:
(i) Expensive new technology: New technologies and machines were expensive, so the pioducers and the industrialists were cautious about using them.
(ii) Costlier repair: The machines often
broke down and the repair was costly.
(iii) Less effective: They were not as effective as their inventors and manufacturers claimed.
(iv) Availability of cheap workers: Poor peasants and migrants moved to cities in large numbers in search of jobs. So the supply of workers was more than the demand. Therefore, workers were available at low wages.
(v) Uniform machine-made goods: A range of products could be produced only with hand labour. Machines were oriented to producing uniforms, standardized goods for a mass market. But the demand in the market was often for goods with intricate designs and specific shapes.
In the mid-nineteenth century. Britain, for instance. 500 varieties of hammers were produced, and 15 kinds of axes. This required human skill, not mechanical technology.

Question 5:
How did the East India Company procure regular supplies of cotton and silk textiles from the Indian weavers ?

Answer 5:
(i) Monopoly right : Once the East India Company established political power, it asserted a monopoly right to trade
(ii) New system : After establishing monopoly over trade :t proceeded to develop a system of management and control that would eliminate competition, control costs, and ensure regular supplies of cotton and silk goods. This it did through a series of steps.
(iii) Appointing Gomasthas : The Company tried to eliminate the existing traders and brokers connected with the doth trade, and establish a more direct control over the weavers. It appointed a paid secant called the Gomostha to supervise weavers, collect supplies, and examine the quality of cloth.
(iv) System of advances : To have a direct control over the weavers, the company- started the system of advances. Once an order was placed, the weavers were given loans to purchase the raw material for their production. Those, who took loans had to hand over the doth they produced to the Gomastha. They could not take it to any other trader.
(v) Use of power : The places where the weaver refused to cooperate the Company used its police. At many places weaver were often beaten and flogged for delays in supply.

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Question 6:
Imagine that you have been asked to write an article for an encylopedia on Britain and the history of cotton. Write your piece using information from the entire chapter.

Answer 6:
The following inventions in 18th century England (given in chronological order) are important milestones in the history of cotton.

1.James Hargreaves invented the Spinning Jenny’ in 1764. This speeded up spinning work significantly.
2.John Key invented the ‘Flying Shuttle’ in 1769, which sped up the weaving process.
3.Richard Arkwright improved the ‘Spinning Jenny’ in 1769 so that it could be run by water power. He called it the ‘Water Frame’.
4.In 1776, Samuel Crompton invented the ‘Mule’, which combined the advantages of both the ‘Water Frame’ and the ‘Spinning Jenny’.
5.In 1785, Edmund Cartwright invented the power loom, which used steam power for both spinning and weaving.
6.Eli Whitney (in the USA) invented the ‘Cotton Gin’ in 1793, which solved the problem of removing seeds from cotton fibres. This could separate the seeds from the fibres 300 times faster than by hand. Later on, Arkwright created a complete cotton mill, where all the textile manufacturing process could be completed under one roof and management.
7.The use of steam power played a very significant role in running cotton mills. Production of textiles increased in a very short time and with less manual labour. At the beginning of the 19th century, there were near about 321 steam engines in England, out of which 80 were in use in cotton textile mills.
8.The East India Company appointed ‘Gomasthas’, the paid servants of the company to supervise weavers, collect supplies and judge and inspect the quality of textiles. The Gomasthas were the link between the East India Company and the weavers. The company arranged loans to the weavers to purchase raw material for weaving the cloth.

Question 7:
Why did industrial production in India increase during the First World War?

Answer 7:
(i) Decline of Manchester : With British mills busy with war production to meet the needs of the army. Manchester imports into India declined.
(ii) Increase in demand : With the decline of imports suddenly. Indian mills had a vast home market to supply.
(iii) Demand from army : As the War prolonged. Indian factories were called upon to supply war need;i.e.. jute bags, doth for the army uniforms, tents and leather boots, horse and mule saddles, and a host of other items.
(iv) New factories : New factories were set up. and old ones ran multiple shifts. Many new workers were employed, and everyone was made to work for longer hours. Over the war years, industrial production boomed.
(v) Downfall of British industry and boon for home industry : After the war Manchester could never recapture its old position in the Indian market. Unable to modernise and compete with the US. Germany and Japan, the economy of Britain crumbled after the war. Cotton production collapsed and exports of cotton cloth from Britain fell dramatically. Within the colonies, local industrialists gradually consolidated their position, substituting foreign manufactures and capturing the home market.


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