NCERT Solutions Class 10 for Social Science History Chapter 3 Nationalism in India

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Class 10 Social Science History Chapter 3 Nationalism in India


Exercise Questions

Question 1:
(a) Why is the growth of nationalism in the colonies linked to an anti-colonial movement ?
(b) How did the First World War help in the growth of the National Movement in India?
(c)Why Indians were outraged by the Rowlatt Act?
(d)Why Gandhiji decided to withdraw the Non-Cooperation Movement?

Answer 1:
1.People began discovering their unity in the process of their struggle with colonialism.
2.The sense of being oppressed under colonialism provided a shared bond that tied many different groups together.
3.But each class and group felt the effects of colonialism differently. Their experiences were varied and their notions of freedom were not always the same. The Congress under Mahatma Gandhi tried to forge these groups together within one movement. But the unity did not emerge without conflict.

War created a new political and economic situation.
1.Led to a huge increase in defence expenditure which was financed by war loans and increasing taxes: custom duties were increased and income tax introduced.
2.Forced recruitment in villages caused widespread anger.
3.Crops failed; this resulted in an acute shortage of food.
4.12 to 13 million people died due to famines and epidemics.

1.Rowlatt Act was introduced in 1919.
2.This act was hurriedly passed through the Imperial Legislative Council, although it was completely opposed by Indian members.
3.It had given the Government enormous powers to repress political activities.
4.It allowed detention of political prisoners without trial for two years.

In February 1922, Mahatma Gandhi decided to withdraw the Non-Cooperation Movement. He felt the movement was turning violent in many places, and satyagrahis needed to be properly trained before they would be ready for mass struggles.

Question 2:
What is meant by the idea of satyagraha?

Answer 2:
The idea of satyagraha emphasised the power of truth and the need to search for truth. It suggested that if the cause was true, if the struggle was against injustice, then the physical force was not necessary to fight the oppressor. Without seeking vengeance or being aggressive, a satyagrahi could win the battle through nonviolence. This could be done by appealing to the conscience of the oppressor. People – including the oppressors – had to be persuaded to see the truth, instead of being forced to accept truth through the use of violence. By this struggle, the truth was bound to triumph ultimately. Mahatma Gandhi believed that this dharma of non-violence could unite all Indians.

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Question 3:
Write a newspaper report on :
(a) The Jallianwala Bagh massacre
(b) The Simon Commission

Answer 3:
(a) The Jallianwala Bagh massacre: A public meeting was announced for the 13th April 1919, at Jallianwala Bagh, Amritsar to protest against the Rowlatt Act. The people were allowed to assemble there. After they had gathered there in thousands, General Dyer marched there with armoured cars and troops. Without giving any warning to the people to disperse, he ordered firing on the unarmed, and peaceful people. The casualties among the Indians were very heavy. Dyer’s purpose in doing so was to ‘produce a moral effect’, to create in the minds of Satyagrahis, a feeling of terror and awe. This massacre of innocent people in thousands converted Mahatma Gandhi into a non-cooperator.

(i) The Indian members of the Central Legislative Assembly exposed the drawbacks in the Government of India Act of 1919 A.D. As a result of it, the Simon Commission was appointed in 1927 A.D. to suggest any further constitutional reforms. This commission consisted of seven members and its Chairman was Sir John Simon.
(ii) Why was it boycotted by the Indians?
But Indians boycotted the Simon Commission because there was no Indian member in this commission. The terms of the commission’s appointment did not give any indication of ‘Swaraj’, while the demand of the Indians was only ‘Swaraj’. Therefore, the Indian National Congress, the Muslim League, and other parties decided to oppose the Simon Commission.
(iii) Methods: Indian people organised hartals all over the country. They also held a black flag demonstration with the slogan, “Simon go back”, when the Commission reached Bombay (Mumbai). Such demonstrations were held everywhere it went.

Question 4:
Compare the images of Bharat Mata in this chapter with the image of Germania in Chapter 1.

Answer 4:

1.Symbol of Germany
2.The image was painted by Philip Veit in 1848.
3.Carrying a sword in one hand and flag in another hand
4.Germania is wearing a crown of oak leaves, as the German oak stands for heroism.

Bharat Mata:

1.Symbol of India
2.Painted by Abanindranath Tagore in 1905
3.Bharat is standing with a Trishul, standing beside a lion and elephant, symbols of power and authority.

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Question 1:
List all the different social groups which joined the Non-Cooperation Movement of 1921. Then choose any three and write about their hopes and struggles to show why they joined the movement.

Answer 1:
Social Groups who took part in the Non­Cooperation Movement. In the Non- Cooperation Movement (1920-1922), the following social groups took part.
(I) Middle-class people in the towns.

1.The movement in the cities: The Movement started with middle-class participation in the cities. Thousands of students left government-controlled schools and colleges, headmasters and teachers resigned, and lawyers gave up their legal practices.
2.Boycott of council elections: The Council elections were boycotted in most provinces except Madras (Chennai), where the Justice Party, the party of the non­Brahmans, felt that entering the council was one way of gaining some power, something that usually only Brahmans had an access to.
3.Swadeshi: The Non-Cooperation Movement had a great impact on the Indian textile industry. Swadeshi goods, especially cloth got a great impetus. Foreign goods were boycotted, liquor shops picketed, and foreign cloth burnt in huge bonfires.
4.Impact on industry: In many places, merchants and traders refused to trade in foreign goods or finance foreign trade. Due to this, the demand for Indian textile mills and handlooms went up. The increase in demand provided a big relief to the vanishing textile industry of India.
5.Movement in the countryside: Though people in the countryside interpreted the idea of ‘Swaraj’ in their own way but they participated in the movement on large scale. In Awadh, peasants launched the movement against the talukdars and landlords. Whereas the plantation workers launched the movement against the tea estate owners.

(II) Peasants in rural areas.
(i) Participants: In the countryside, the movement was led by the peasants, tribals and the local leaders. For example, in Awadh, it was Baba Ramchandra sanyasi, who had earlier been to Fiji as an indentured labourer.

(ii) Why rural people participated?
The movement here was not against the Britishers but against talukdars and landlords. The problems of the rural people were different from those of the urban people:

1.The talukdars and landlords were demanding very high rents and a variety of other taxes.
2.Peasants had to do begarand work at the landlord’s farms without any payment.
3.The peasants had no security of tenure. They were regularly evicted so that they could acquire no security of tenure.

As the problems of the people were different, their demands were also different. The peasant
movement demanded:

1.Reduction of revenue
2.Abolition of begar
3.Redistribution of land
4.Social boycott of oppressive landlords.

(iii) Ways of protests: The Movement in the countryside had a different angle. In many places, Nai-dhobi bandhs were organised by the Panchayats to deprive the landlords of the services of barbers, cobblers, washermen, etc. Even national leaders like Jawaharlal Nehru went to villages in Awadh to know the grievances of the people. By October, the Awadh Kissan Sabhas was set up headed by Jawaharlal Nehru, Baba Ramchandra, and a few others. When the movement spread in 1921, the houses of talukdars and merchants were attacked. The movement turned violent which was not liked by some of the Congress leaders.

(III) Tribal people.
Most of the tribal people were dependent on forests for their livelihood but under the new Forest Policy, the government had put several restrictions on the people :

1.Closing large forest area for the tribal people.
2.Forcing the local people to contribute begar.
3.Preventing people from entering the forests to graze their cattle, or to collect fuelwood and fruits.

All these steps enraged the hill people. Not only were their livelihoods affected, but they felt that their traditional rights were also being denied. So the people revolted.

(IV) Plantation workers.
(i) For plantation workers in Assam, freedom meant the right to move freely in and out of the confined space in which they were enclosed, and it meant retaining a link with the village from which they had come.

1.The government had passed the Inland Emigration Act of 1859 under which plantation workers were not permitted to leave the tea estates without permission, and in fact, they were rarely given such permission.
2.When the plantation workers heard of the Non-Cooperation Movement, thousands of them defied the authorities, left the plantations and headed towards their homes.
3.The plantation workers believed that the Gandhi Raj was coming, and everyone would be given land in their own villages.

Question 2:
Discuss the Salt March to make clear why it was an effective symbol of resistance against colonialism.

Answer 2:
The Salt March was an effective symbol of resistance against colonialism because-

1.It was the first time that Indian leaders decided to violate law. People were now asked not only to refuse cooperation with the British, but also to break colonial laws.
2.Thousands of Indians in different parts of the country broke the salt law, manufactured salt and demonstrated in front of the government salt factories.
3.As the movement spread, foreign cloth was boycotted and liquor shops were picketed. Peasants refused to pay revenue and ‘chaukidari taxes’, village officials resigned, and in many places forest people violated forest laws – going into Reserved Forests to collect wood and graze cattle.
4.Worried by the development, the colonial government began arresting the Congress leaders, one by one. This led to violent clashes in many places. Angry crowd demonstrated in the streets, facing armoured cars and police firing. Many were killed.
5.When Mahatma Gandhi himself was arrested, industrial workers in Sholapur attacked police posts, municipal buildings, law courts and railway stations – all structures that symbolised the British rule.
6.The outcome of the movement was the Gandhi-Irwin Pact which was signed by Gandhiji with Irwin on 5th March, 1931. By this Gandhi-Irwin Pact, Gandhiji consented to participate in a Round Table Conference in London and the government agreed to release the political prisoners.

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Question 3:
Imagine you are a woman participating in the Civil Disobedience Movement. Explain what the experience meant to your life.

Answer 3:
1.Women participated in large numbers in the Civil Disobedience Movement.
2.During the movement, thousands of women came out of their homes to listen to Gandhiji.
3.They participated in protest marches, manufactured salt, and picked foreign cloth and liquor shops.
4.Many were put to jail by the police.
5.Moved by Gandhiji’s call, they began to see service to the nation as a sacred duty of women.

Question 4:
Why did political leaders differ sharply over the question of separate electorates?

Answer 4:
Dr B.R. Ambedkar, who organised the Dalits into the Depressed Classes Association in 1930, clashed with Mahatma Gandhi at the second Round Table Conference by demanding separate electorates for Dalits. When the British government conceded Ambedkar’s demand, Gandhiji began a fast unto death. He believed that separate electorates for Dalits would slow down the process of their integration into society. Ambedkar ultimately accepted Gandhiji’s position, and the result was the Poona Pact of September 1932.
Muhammad Ali Jinnah was willing to give up the demand for separate electorates if Muslims were assured reserved seats in the Central Assembly and representation in proportion to population in the Muslim-dominated provinces (Bengal and Punjab). Negotiations over the question of representation continued, but all hope of resolving the issue at the All Parties Conference in 1928 disappeared when M.R. Jayakar of the Hindu Mahasabha strongly opposed efforts at compromise.


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