# NCERT Solutions Class 10 for Science Chapter 5 Periodic Classification of Elements

NCERT Solutions Class 10 for Science Chapter 5 Periodic Classification of Elements : In this post, we will share with you all the detailed NCERT Solutions of Class 10 Science Chapter 5 Periodic Classification of Elements. This will contain both in-text and back-exercise questions for Science and Social Science, and all exercise questions for Mathematics. For all school and board level examinations, doing all the NCERT Questions is a must.

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# Class 10 Science Chapter 5 – Periodic Classification of Elements

## In-Text Questions (Page 81)

Question 1:
Did Döbereiner’s triads also exist in the columns of Newlands’ Octaves? Compare and find out.

Döbereiner’s triads did exist in the columns of Newlands’ Octaves; For example, the elements

Lithium (Li), Potassium (K) and Sodium (Na) constitute a Dobereiner’s Triad but are also found in the second column of Newland’s Octaves.

Question 2:
What were the limitations of Döbereiner’s classification?

(i) They were not applicable for very low mass or very high mass elements.

(ii) All the elements couldn’t fit into Dobereiner’s triads.

(iii) As the methods to calculate atomic mass improved, Dobereiner’s triads validity began to decrease. For example, in the triad of F, Cl and Br, the arithmetic mean of atomic masses of F and Br are not equal to the atomic mass of CI.

Question 3:
What were the limitations of Newlands’ Law of Octaves?

Limitations of Newlands’ Law of Octaves are as follows

• Newlands’ Law of Octaves applicable to elements up to Calcium
• Newland assumed there are 56 elements in the nature and no more elements would be discovered in the future.
• To fit elements into table Newland put two elements into one slot. Newland introduced unlike elements with different properties into one column.
• Iron (Fe) was placed away from elements that resembles in properties. Ex: Nickel and cobalt

## In-Text Questions (Page 85)

Question 1:
Use Mendeleev’s Periodic Table to predict the formulae for the oxides of the following elements : K, C, Al, Si, Ba

K2O, CO2, Al2O3, SiO2, BaO.

Question 2:
Besides gallium, which other elements have since been discovered that were left by Mendeleev in his periodic table ? (any two)

Scandium and Germanium.

Question 3:
What were the criteria used by Mendeleev in creating his Periodic Table ?

Mendeleev used the relationship between the atomic masses of the elements and their physical and chemical properties. He used similarity in physical properties, similarity in the formation of hydrides and oxides of element.

Question 4:
Why do you think the noble gases are placed in a separate group ?

Noble gases are chemically inert and are present in atmosphere in extremely low concentrations. Therefore, owing to their similar inert behaviour and similar electronic configuration, they are justified to be placed in a separate group.

## In-Text Questions (Page 90)

Question 1:
How could the modern periodic table remove various anomalies of Mendeleev’s periodic Table ?

(i) The modern periodic table is based on atomic number, while Mendeleev’s periodic table was based on atomic mass.

(ii) The isotopes of an element have same number of protons (or atomic number). So they are alloted the same position in modern periodic table.

(iii) Cobalt and nickel are placed at 9th and 10th position respectively.

(iv) Hydrogen has been alloted special position, i.e., it is placed at the top of alkali metals in the first group.

Question 2:
Name two elements you would expect to show chemical reactions similar to magnesium. What is the basis for your choice ?

Calcium and Beryllium are similar to Magnesium because all the three elements belong to the same group and have 2 valence electrons in their outer shell.

Question 3:
Name :
(a) three elements that have a single electron in their outermost shells.
(b) two elements that have two electrons in their outermost shells.
(c) three elements with filled outer most shells.

(a) Lithium : Atomic number – 3(2, 1); Sodium : Atomic number – 11(2, 8, 1); Potassium : Atomic number – 19(2, 8, 8, 1).
(b) Beryllium : Atomic number – 4(2, 2); Calcium : Atomic number – 20(2, 8, 8, 2)
(c) Helium : Atomic number – 2(2); Neon : Atomic number – 10(2, 8); Argon : Atomic number – 18(2, 8, 8).

Question 4:
(a) Lithium, sodium, potassium are all metals that react with water to liberate hydrogen gas. Is there any similarity in the atoms of these elements ?
(b) Helium is an unreactive gas and neon is a gas of extremely low reactivity. What, if anything, do their atoms have in common ?

(a) Lithium, sodium and potassium all belong to the same group. The atoms of lithium, sodium and potassium all have only one electron in their outermost shells and all of these are metals. All of these react with water to form alkalies.
(b) The atoms of helium and neon have their outermost shells completely filled. Helium has its first shell completely filled, while neon has its first and second shells (K and L) completely filled.

Question 5:
In the modern periodic table, which are the metals among the first ten elements ?

Lithium and Beryllium are the metals among the first ten elements in Modern Periodic Table.

Question 6:
By considering their position in the Periodic Table, which one of the following elements would you expect to have maximum metallic characteristics ?

Beryllium (Be). In the periodic table, the elements placed on the left show maximum metallic characteristics. Since beryllium occupies the most left position in comparison to other elements, hence it shows maximum metallic characteristics.

## Exercise Questions (Page 91-92)

Question 1:
Which of the following statements is not a correct statement about the trends wlien going from left to right across the periods of Periodic Table.
(a) The elements become less metallic in nature.
(b) The number of valence electrons increases.
(c) The atoms lose their electrons more easily.
(d) The oxides become more acidic.

(c) The atoms lose their .electrons more easily.

Question 2:
Element X forms a chloride with the formula XCl2, which is solid with a high melting point. X would most likely to be in the same group of the periodic table as
(a) Na
(b) Mg
(c) Al
(d) Si

Answer is Magnesium because Mg has the valency 2 which is same as the group (a) Na (b) Mg (c) AI (d) Si
Also, Mg when combines chloride forms MgCl2.

Question 3:
Which element has
(a) two shells, both of which are completely filled with electrons ?
(b) the electronic configuration 2, 8, 2 ?
(c) a total of three shells, with four electrons in its valence shell ?
(d) a total of two shells with three electrons in its valence shell. v
(e) twice as many electrons in its second shell as in its first shell ?

a) Neon has two shells which are completely filled.
b) Magnesium has electronic configuration 2, 8, 2
c) Silicon has a total of three shells, with four electrons in its valence shell
d) Boron a total of two shells, with three electrons in its valence shell
e) Carbon has twice as many electrons in its second shell as in its first shell

Question 4:
(a) What property do all elements in the same column of the Periodic Table as boron have in common ?
(b) What property do all elements in the same column of the Periodic Table as fluorine have in common ?

(a) All the elements which lie in me same column as that of boron belong to group 13. Therefore, they have three electrons in their respective valence shells. Except, boron which is a non-metal, all other elements (i.e., aluminum, gallium, indium and thallium) in this group are metals.
(b) All elements in the same column of the Periodic Table as fluorine have in common three electrons in their valence shell and they all are belong to group thirteen.

Question 5:
An atom has electronic configuration 2, 8, 7.
(a) What is the atomic number of this element ?
(b) To which of the following elements would it be chemically similar ? (Atomic numbers are given in parentheses.)
N (7), F (9), P (15), Ar (18)

(a) The atomic number of the given element is 2 + 8 + 7(= 17).
(b) It would be chemically similar to fluorine [F(9)] because its electronic configuration is 2, 7.

Question 6:
The position of three elements A, B and C in the Periodic Table are shown below–

Group 16          Group 17

–                                –

–                                A

–                                –

B                               C

(a) State whether A is a metal or non-metal.
(b) State whether C is more reactive or less reactive than A.
(c) Will C be larger or smaller in size than B?
(d) Which type of ion, cation or anion, will be formed by element A?

(a) Since the valency of group 17 elements is 1 and all these elements accept electrons, thus A is a non-metal.
(b) C is less reactive than A because as we move down in a group, the reactivity of non-metals increases.
(c) C is smaller in size than B because B and C both are related to the same period and the size decreases as one moves from left to right in a period.
(d) A will form anion because it is a non-metal.

Question 7:
Nitrogen (atomic number 7) and phosphorus (atomic number 15) belong to group 15 of the periodic table. Write the electronic configuration of these two elements. Which of these will be more electronegative ? Why ?

Electronic configuration of nitrogen -2,5
Electronic configuration of phosphorus = 2, 8, 5
Nitrogen will be more electronegative because outermost shell is nearer to nucleus and therefore nucleus will attract electrons more strongly. In a group of the periodic table, electron attracting tendency decreases as we move from top to bottom.

Question 8:
How does the electronic configuration of an atom relate to its position in the Modern Periodic Table ?

Modern periodic table is based on the atomic number and atomic number is directly related to the electronic configuration. One can find the group number and period number of an element on the basis of electronic configuration. For example, if an element has 1 or 2 electrons in its outermost shell, then it would belong to group 1 or group 2. And if it has 3 or more electrons in its outermost shell, then it would belong to group 10 4- the number of electrons in the outermost shell.
All the alkali metals have one electron in their outermost shell, so they are placed in group 1. Thus, all the group 2 elements have 2 electrons in their outermost shell. In group 15 elements, there are 5 electrons in their outermost shell. Similarly, the number of shells in an element indicates its period number. For example, the atomic number of magnesium is 12 and its electronic configuration is 2, 8, 2. Thus it is an element of 3rd period.

Question 9:
In the Modern Periodic Table, calcium (atomic number 20) is surrounded by elements with atomic number 12, 19, 21 and 38. Which of these have physical and chemical properties resembling calcium ?

Calcium has an atomic number of 20, and thus has an electronic configuration of 2, 8, 8, 2. Thus, calcium has 2 valence electrons. The electronic configuration of the element having atomic number 12 is 2, 8.2. Thus, this element with 2 valence electrons resemble calcium the most.

Question 10:
Compare and contrast the arrangement of elements in Mendeleev’s Periodic Table and the Modern Periodic Table.