Some More Written Practice Questions
Explain why do the planets not twinkle but the stars twinkle. [Delhi (C); Delhi 2011]
Planets being of larger size can be taken as a collection of large number of point-sized objects/sources of light, which nullify the twinkling effect of each other.
Due to varying conditions of atmosphere, starlight undergoes multiple refraction and its path varying slightly while passing through the atmosphere. Therefore, the apparent position of star fluctuates and amount of light entering the eye changing continuously. The star sometimes appear brighter and some other time, it appears fainter. This causes twinkling of star.
What is dispersion of white light? What is the cause of such dispersion? Draw a diagram to show the dispersion of white light by a glass prism.
(b) A glass prism is able to produce a spectrum when white light passes through it but a glass slab does not produce any spectrum. Explain why is it so [All India- 2009]
Answer. (a) The splitting up of white light into its constituent colours is called dispersion. The colour sequence is given by the acronym V I B G Y O R – Violet, Indigo, Blue, Green, Yellow, Orange and Red. This colour pattern is called a spectrum.
Dispersion takes place because the speed of light of different colours through a glass prism is different and so, refractive index, therefore, each colour bends (refracts) through different angles with respect to incident ray as they pass through a prism. The red colour has maximum speed in glass prism. So, it is least deviated while the violet colour has minimum speed so its deviation is maximum. Thus, the ray of each colour emerges along different paths and becomes distinct.
(b) For dispersion, the two refracting surfaces must be inclined to each other as in case of prism. In rectangular glass slab, the refracting surfaces are parallel to each other. So, dispersion cannot occur. This is due to fact that the rectangular glass slab can be considered as equivalent of two identical prisms in inverted position placed in an inverted position with respect to each other. The deviation and dispersion produced by the second inverted prism is equal and opposite to that produced by the first prism.
Therefore, there will neither be dispersion, nor deviation, Le. second inverted prism recombines the , colour to give a white light parallel to the incident ray again and will undergo only lateral displacement. Hence, rectangular glass slab cannot produce any spectrum.
A star appears slightly higher (above) than its actual position in the sky. Illustrate it with the help of a labelled diagram. [Delhi; All India 2012]
Answer. The gradual change in the refractive index of different layers of the atmosphere due to the varying conditions of it causes atmospheric refraction. When starlight enters the atmosphere, it gets refracted continuously. The higher level of air acts as a rarer medium while the dense air near the surface of earth acts as a denser medium. So, the atmosphere bends the starlight towards the normal. As a result, the apparent position of star is slightly different from its actual position. Thus, star appears slightly higher (above) than its actual position in the sky.
Draw a ray diagram to show the refraction of light through a glass prism. Mark on it (a) the incident ray. (b) the emergent ray and (c) the angle of deviation. [All India]
Answer. i-incident angle, r – refraction angle, δ – the angle of deviation, e – the angle of emergence.
What is meant by the term ‘power of accommodation’ of human eye? How does it help a person to see nearby as well as distant objects clearly.[Foreign]
Answer. The ability of the eye lens to adjust its focal length to form the sharp image of the object at varying distances on the retina is called its power of accommodation.
When we see the nearby object, the ciliary muscles contract, it increases the thickness of the eye lens. The eye lens then becomes thicker. As a result, the focal length of the eye lens decreases in such a way that a clear sharp image of nearby object is formed on the retina. Thus, the object is seen clearly to us.
When we see the distant object, these muscles become relaxed, thus the eye lens becomes thinner, and consequently the focal length of the lens increases. Therefore, the parallel rays coming from the distant object are focused on the retina, and the object is seen clearly to us. Thus, the accommodation power of an eye helps a person to see nearby as well as distant objects clearly.